LECTURE I: INTRODUCING SERAMPORE
Very few are aware that Serampore College as the first University in this sub-continent is only four years short of celebrating bi-century of its existence. Not many have heard of the Royal Danish Charter of 1827 which was granted to Serampore College with the power to grant degrees, diplomas and certificate in any branch of knowledge decades earlier than the establishment of universities in Calcutta, Madras and Bombay. Of late, there is a tendency to ignore that Serampore College still exists, serving the people of West Bengal in providing collegiate education to its children in the Faculties of Arts, Science and Commerce through affiliation with the University of Calcutta, and higher theological education to the ministers of the churches through its Faculty of Theology with affiliated colleges in India, Sri Lanka and Bangladesh. It is high time that we recollect our past, strengthen our present and plan for the future.
The College was established in 1818 in the Danish settlement of Serampore by the pioneer Christian missionaries, William Carey (1761-1834) Joshua Marshman (1768-1837) and William Ward (1769-1823), for the instruction of Indian youth in Christianity and the sciences. In 1827, the College was incorporated by the Royal Charter granted by His Danish Majesty King Frederick the Sixth with University powers under the control of an independent Council. In ‘the Treaty of Purchase’ which transferred Serampore from Denmark to the British dominion in 1845, it was provided that the rights and immunities of Serampore College should not be interfered with. The same privileges continued after India became an independent and sovereign nation in 1947.
Technically, Serampore became a University from the day the Charter was granted, though it did not exercise such powers until 1915. It is to be noted that Serampore never deviated from its mission of imparting secular and theological education from its campus. College, though, in the initial years, it was engaged in strengthening primary and secondary education in Serampore, and elsewhere, under its missionary activities. It chose to affiliate itself to the newly formed University of Calcutta in 1858, the first body in India to exercise, though not the first to receive, University powers. Secular section of the College was closed in 1883 and the College became purely a Christian training institution- secondary, normal and theological, for the Baptist Churches in Bengal.
A reorganization of the College took place in 1910. It was the subject of important discussions in various conferences – denominational and inter-denominational, in the following ten years. The chief concerns were its reorganization as a high grade teaching institution and the utilizing of the College Charter for granting of theological degrees to qualified students of all Christian churches and denominations. The College was reorganized on the lines laid down by the original founders under the direct control of the College Council and through the appointment of qualified Theological staff and the opening of Higher Theological Classes on an interdenominational basis. It re-affiliated itself, up to the standard of Intermediate arts, to the University of Calcutta in 1911; to the BA in 1913; to the Intermediate Science in 1920; and to the B.Sc in 1924. The Collegiate School was closed down in 1922 and shifted to Bishnupur, Kolkata (where it still continues to function); and the College became purely an institution of collegiate education.
In 1915, the Serampore College Charter was utilized, for the first time, for the conferring of degrees in Divinity. In 1916, the Licentiate in Theology (L.Th) was instituted. In 1918, during the Centenary of the College, the Serampore College Act was passed by the Bengal Legislative Council, confirming the power of the Serampore College to confer Degrees, and enlarging the College Council. It created College Faculty for the internal governance of the College. The Act also provided for the constitution and appointment of a College Senate. As per the provision of the Act, the College Council appointed members of the Senate, representing various Christian Communions. The Senate today is the only representative body of Churches legally constituted and responsible for administering theological education in South Asia. It stands as a unique example of ecumenical participation of the churches and theological institutions in curriculum planning and evaluation towards common degrees for all, in their quest for holistic training for ministry. The participating Church bodies are: The Church of North India, The Church of South India, The United Evangelical Lutheran Church in India, The Orthodox Churches in India, Mar Thoma Syrian Church of Malabar, Mennonite Brethren Church, The Methodist Church in India, the Baptist Church, The Presbyterian Church in India, The Evangelical Church in India, Church of Christ, the Pentecostal Churches and other independent Churches.
The Senate tries to meet the demands of modern ministries effectively by responding to current social challenges and evolving newer patterns of theological education and research. The Board of Theological Education (BTE) consisting of theological educators and church leaders meet along with the Senate to assess the priorities of theological education in India and to give direction to the Senate about its programmes. Forty-five colleges and Federated Faculties from all over India, Sri Lanka and Bangladesh are affiliated to the Senate and it reaches over to 8000 students in English and major regional languages. Further, the Act authorized the College to confer degrees in Theology on students who had not prosecuted a regular course of study in Serampore College. In 1919, the Governing Body of the College – Council, Faculty, and the Senate – was reconstituted in accordance with the provisions of the Serampore College Act. The Serampore College Act, 1918 (Bengal Act IV of 1918) was adapted in 1937 and 1950.
The College is under the care of an independent and autonomous body known as the Council of the College. The President of the Council is the Master of the College who, along with the Council of Serampore College holds the final authority in all matters related to the College.
Serampore College (University) as Theological University (1918)
It needs to be pointed out that Article 13 of the Act, with its sub-clauses, recognizes that College, so far as the legal powers are concerned, can proceed to grant degrees even in Arts and Science or any other faculty at any time; but it has, till now, voluntarily, in understanding with the Government, limited its powers to grant degrees only in theology. This has been done on account of the fact of the existence of University of Calcutta as well as the affiliation of the College with it in the faculty of Arts and Science since 1858. In one way, this section validates the affiliation of Arts-Science-Commerce departments of the Serampore College with the University of Calcutta and maintains historic relationship with it. This is a unique model of understanding whereby an independent university is affiliated with another university. This is an exceptional example of cooperation of two autonomous universities in this country.
The Senate functions as the university part of the College. It grants affiliation to colleges, prepares courses and programmes, and conducts examination for the degrees/diplomas that are to be conferred upon by the Council. Theology Department of the Serampore College is supposed to be the University Teaching Department, and it was so till its course-examinations were not conducted by the Theology Department but by the Senate. The Senate, at the moment, has fifty colleges affiliated to it in India, including two in Sri Lanka and one in Bangladesh.
The Serampore system is a complex one on account of its association with the missionary movement. It is involved in education activities; it had been teaching secular and theological disciplines in one campus; and it is a university, enforcing curriculum and syllabuses upon the affiliating institutions. One is expected to have a broader perspective and criteria to look at the system.
Evolution of Serampore: Theological education in Secular Context
Interfaith endeavors are of immense relevance especially in the Indian scenario since such engagements, to a great extent, fabricate or promote peace and harmony amidst extreme religious intolerance and communal turbulence. There have been auspicious attempts to explore new ways of inter-faith relations, inter-religious and interdisciplinary education for insuring quality and relevant education in Asia for common good. It is a worthwhile enterprise to probe in to the various stages Serampore passed through and proved itself successful in providing theological education in pluralistic context.
1. Preliminary stage: School
There is no doubt that from the very outset, Serampore Trio recognized the importance of education. Carey is considered as the founder of the first school for the native Indian children while he was in Mudnabatty[i]. His schools were the precursor of the Indian Elementary School System established later under British Government. It may be interesting to note that he taught Sanskrit to Hindus, Persian to Muslim along with various other branches of useful knowledge. He also included a course in Christian Doctrines and Christian duties to be taught to all. When he left Mudnabatty in 1799, he had forty students attending his school. There does not seem to have any indication that Sanskrit and Persian too were available to people of other faith.
Carey followed the same pattern in Serampore. A year before the College was founded, there were forty schools functioning around Serampore under the care of the Serampore Mission. It was reported that there were about two thousand in attendance at the school run by the Mission, engaged in learning and preparing themselves for the life in the wider world[ii].
The importance of the stage lies in the fact that it is applied in the context of primary education made available to all pupils, irrespective of their religious association.
2. Study centre
Education involves entering oneself into the study process. The Serampore Trio, especially Carey, was quick to realize the importance of the local vernaculars as well as the classical languages for the understanding of the faith of the people and for the communication of his own faith. He devoted early part of his stay in Bengal in learning Bengali and Sanskrit. Later he had an opportunity to learn many other Indian languages as he was appointed to a professorship at Fort William. He took up the studies of epics and engaged himself in their translation in which Marshman collaborated. Ward, in this work presented an in-depth study of the customs and manners of the Hindus and published it at the Serampore Press. This well illustrated treatise served as a guide of the Hindus of that era.
The stage is characterized by the understanding of the social and religious context of the people. The basic principle involved is that education worthy of the name is religious education. In the context of missionary endeavors, obviously it meant that all instruction should be permeated by the spirit of Christianity. In the present context, not only at the College in Serampore, but also elsewhere, religious instruction is not appreciated, and is not even imparted. No wonder, inter-faith study, in the context of Serampore College, now is the maid of theological education; it has no relevance for the students of ASC students.
3. Pre-College stage: Spirit of Tolerance
It is essential to keep in mind the basic education policy of the Serampore College, well expressed in the preamble of the Charter itself: The main intension of the King, and the Founding fathers, was the promotion of piety and learning, particularly among the Christian population of India, though open to all people without any distinction of castes and creeds. It is not often appreciated that Serampore College and its administration faithfully adhered to this mission of education throughout its inspiring history.
Terming the stage as liberal may not be a helpful one; it may bring in baffling connotations. The founders of the College and its benefactor were from non-conformist stock. It is therefore not surprising to note that they were careful to maintain conditions that allowed everyone absolute freedom of conscience. No Hindu or Muslim youth is to be constrained to perform any act repugnant to his conscience as a condition for enjoying the benefit of the institution. No wonder, there was none to oppose the curriculum and the teaching at the college, even though Christian moral courses were openly taught.
4. Interactive Period (1818-1858)
Carey and his friends felt the need to go beyond the mere elementary education. While teachers were required to take responsibilities in the schools, qualified personnel were required in education, literature, evangelism and pastoral fields. There emerged a need for an institution that would produce better qualified men for the jobs. Therefore an idea of a college took shape in their planning for a higher level of education and brought it into existence in the year 1818.
It is interesting to note that the College was initially considered as a divinity school, where Christian Youth of personal piety and aptitude for the work of an evangelist had to go through a complete course for instruction in Christian Theology. The College was also to include a normal section for the training of teachers[iii], so that they could be trained to take up the responsibility of fast growing education ministry of the mission. And it was made imperative that it would have to be open to all without distinction of caste or creed. Many fail to appreciate that the foundation of this college was thus laid on the principle of interfaith study in the secular context.
In the first prospectus of the College, it was mentioned that the instruction would be given in Sanskrit, Arabic, European Science and English. Greek, Hebrew, Latin, mathematics, Logic and Natural Philosophy were also be taught. Christian students were given lesion in Divinity. Obviously, there were many passages and concepts that would be drawn from the religious and literary traditions of the languages taught; and the interaction was obviously to take place. The founders were conscious of this reality making it sure to assure the prospective students that the instruction would be given with the understanding that it would be divested of everything of sectarian character.[iv]
5 University in making (1857- )
Introduction of Serampore to University system may be credited to Rev. W.H. Denham who became the Principal of the College in 1845. University of Calcutta was established in 1857. And it was Denham who thought that Serampore could be of greater service to the people, and the Church, if it was affiliated to an existing university. Thus, Serampore became one of the first colleges to be affiliated to the University of Calcutta (1857).
The syllabus of the Calcutta University during that time aimed at training young men for the service of the British Government; Serampore had its own syllabus intended to train Christian youth for the service of the mission and the church. Greek, Latin, Philosophy, history, Science, Mathematics and English literature were taught through the university syllabus. This system later became the foundation of theological university system under Howells and colleagues.
6. Period of Isolation (1883-1910)
From the very inception of the College, there were many, in India and in Britain, who opposed the idea of a college with provision for both secular and theological studies. The founders were opposed to anything like a strictly theological seminary for the training of missionary personnel alone in the college; they could manage to stop the tide in-spite of great financial restrain, but fail to curtail it. This would become a perpetual problem for the College in the years to come.
There was an attempt during the time of the Principal-ship of Rev. John Trafford (1858-79) to separate the theological section of the College; and thus it moved to Alipore, Calcutta, under a separate Principal, Rev. George Pearce.[v] One should not cast unnecessary aspersion upon them as it was done with the best of their intension and for better administration and efficiency. The same was attempted in the late sixties under the Newbegin report, but could not find favor with the Council. But the idea that the combined theological and theological colleges were no longer successful as agencies of evangelizing in India gained more acceptance. The Home Society, supporting College, decided to close down Arts Department and High School in 1883 and the College disaffiliated itself from Calcutta University. For next quarter a century, it remained purely a theological college.
In the context of the subject we are dealing with, we should not take it for granted that this is our way of criticizing this stage as studies in anti-interfaith context. One cannot say that the course content, as they are now, did not have any reference to other religious faith of the region. It can only be said that the interaction of students with other faith within the campus was not available to the ministers in training. This was a situation of contextual studies without being situated in it.
This period is important as most of the affiliating colleges under Serampore System fall under this category. This has an implication to theological education which might not have been anticipated by the Trio. It can be safely assumed that the College (new University) did accept a policy whereby affiliated colleges and institutions need not follow Serampore Model of inclusive theological education, but can remain purely a theological institution.
7. Evolution of in-campus Theological University (1910-18)
This has to be seen from the situation that came into being after 1910 when the College, once again, returned to the same situation as it was in 1858, but with a slight difference. It revived the privileges of the Charter and began, most earnestly, providing theological education at the university level. Dr, Howell, the initiator of the resurrected Serampore, noted that the founders were conscious that the study of theology should be carried on in an open institution, in conjunction with a liberal course in arts and science[vi]. He worked out the reorganization in keeping in mind that Serampore should have to be with two wings- secular and sacred, inseparable. Under the new scheme of things, two departments were created; secular education was brought under Arts-Science-Commerce Department of the College, and sacred in its Theology Department; secular education was brought again under the University of Calcutta through affiliation, and theological under its own by invoking the powers granted in the Charter.
The year 1910 is a significant one in the history of theological education in India. For one, Serampore began to function, in the true sense of the word, a university, utilizing the privileges granted by the Royal Danish Charter. But it was only a partial utilization, as secular education was placed under the regulation and control of the University of Calcutta. Furthermore, theological education was upgraded to graduate and postgraduate level by introducing two courses- Licentiate in Theology (L.Th) equivalent to degree level, and the Bachelor of Divinity (BD) to that at post-graduate level. Experience of Serampore with Calcutta University system since 1858 has provided much impetus to the teachers in theology to come out with the true university administration system, courses and degree programme. For the first time, two universities began to function in the same campus, and the students of two streams were residing in the same campus, though the students of theology were always considered to be a privileged group.
Initially, education given at Serampore was residential. It was obvious that secular students would be greater in number, but they always looked upon students of theology, who were provided accommodation in the main hostel just behind the College building, with awe and respect. Living together in a hostel gave the students of theology ample opportunity for interacting with secular students and sharing common concerns. This was greatly appreciated until the recent time when residential facilities was withdrawn from the secular students and the hostel amenities were made available only to students of theology.
It is interesting to note that the subjects to which Serampore was affiliated with the University of Calcutta were English, Philosophy, Sanskrit, History and Political Philosophy at Pass and Honors’ degree courses. Students were coming from different parts of India and some were joining theology after the completion of their studies. It is also interesting to note that the Senate introduced pre-divinity and Serampore metric courses where secular courses were not available in different parts of India. At the undivided Serampore College, Philosophy, Sanskrit, and English were taught to students of theology by teachers from secular departments and there used to be combined classes in these subjects. The discontinuance of such practices and arrangement has robbed the colleges its unique way of education in context.
8. Formation of affiliating Theological University (1918- )
With the formation of the Serampore College as Theological University in 1918, some kind of system can be seen evolving in its academic management. The minutes and documents of the Senate, available in Serampore, are helpful to assess the contribution of the Serampore model. Going through them, one can easily notice that the College applied all that it learnt from the university education that was given at its campus over fifty years since its affiliation with University of Calcutta in 1858; its own experience with theological education as a university, functioning under the original Charter between 1910-18; and training pastors, evangelists and missionaries for about hundred years (1818-1910).
The task of the first Senate, when it met in 1919, was to prepare curriculum and syllabuses for the degree and diplomas to be offered for theological studies in the Indian setting. We do not find any mention of multi-faith/secular context or pluralist society, to which the theological students belong, in the Minutes of the Senate or in course descriptions; but it was clearly visible in the curriculum adopted. Inclusion of courses in History of Religions, Philosophy of Religion, Moral Philosophy and Classical Languages (Sanskrit, Syriac, Arabic, Tamil, and Latin) reflects the intentions of the theological educators that they wish to prepare Christian ministers with the sound knowledge of the Bible and Christian Doctrines along with the understanding of religion and culture of people among whom they live. This schema of theological studies for degree programmes of Serampore College provides the basic structure, and a model, for inter-faith studies in secular context.
It is to be noted that Serampore College (University) under the Danish Charter (1827) was more liberal and inclusive than Serampore College as Theological University under Bengal Act of 1918. Under the Charter, Serampore degrees, even theological, were open for every one without any distinction.[vii] The First Council clarifies that no caste, color or country shall bar any person from admission into Serampore College. [viii] This privilege was curtailed by the Act, and the College was restricted to grant degrees only in Theology.[ix] The Council and the College did not realize that they now had opted a narrow understanding of theology which meant Christian Theology. This also made Serampore College (Theological University) an exclusive university meant for Christian Churches and institutions. This has become a stumbling block for the Serampore College (University) to join the fraternity of universities in India under University Grant commission (UGC). The Senate soon understood its limitation with the realization that Serampore degrees are meant for the ministry of the Christian Church which does not allow it to register people of other faith for theological degrees. It, however, clarified, as early as 1928, that this limitation should not be interpreted by Serampore and affiliated colleges as debarring students of other faith from attending courses in theological study at Serampore or in any of the affiliated colleges.[x] It thus opened a way for students from different faith perspectives to study in Serampore which will devise suitable courses and degree programmes meant for them.
At present Diploma in Christian Studies is the only course that is being offered by the Senate of Serampore College to all without any distinction of faith perspective of the candidate. The programme is external in nature and is meant for self-study. A degree, Bachelor of Christian Studies, was meant to be for the same, but at present, is offered only to Christian candidates. There is a provision for this degree to be offered to the people of other faith, but this provision is not so far evoked.[xi]
SERAMPORE COLLEGE (UNIVERSITY): ISSUES AND CONCERNS
Serampore has been recognized among the universities in India in the past, but has lost its place in the recent past, even in history of university education in India. Writing historical note on the Universities in India in the Hand-book of the Universities for the year 1953-54, Prof. Samuel Mathai, then Secretary of Inter-university Board of India (1948-53), acknowledged the contribution of Serampore and Hindu Colleges, terming Serampore College as the first Western University in India. It is interesting to note that the introduction of the 25th edition of the Universities Needless to say that somewhere in the past, the name of Serampore College, not only as the first University but also the only Theological University in India, was deleted from the records and history of education in India. It is to point out that the UNESCO, in its own document, issued from Paris in 1952, as a matter of fact, noted that ‘in the Faculties of Arts and Science Serampore College is affiliated to Calcutta University, but in the Faculty of Theology the College functions as an independent University.’[xii] Dr. Murli Manohar Joshi, Honorable Minister of Human Resource Development and Science and Technology, noted at the UNESCO World Conference on Higher Education in Twentieth Century, that ‘ the first institution to be given the status of a university was Serampore College, near Calcutta, in 1829’.[xiii] It is unfortunate that we, in Serampore, did not, for long, take note of this, or ignored exclusions. This was the beginning of difficulties, and a few problems, for Serampore graduates. One was the complexity of its students to get admission in foreign universities, second was the denial of visa to graduates in theology by foreign governments. Some face the denial of job opportunities in armed forces and elsewhere. Some of Indian universities denied admissions to Serampore graduate in theology for higher education. In the context of this, the old issues were again brought into focus along with the new. We have to address them for the sake of theological education in this sub-continent.
Serampore College, perhaps, is the only university in India, which is especially granted provision in its Act to award degrees in theology. During the discussion in the legislative Council, it was clearly understood that the theological degrees are meant for the students of all churches and there is a need to curtail the denominational limitations of the College[xiv]. There was some discussions at the Senate concerning the admission of students of other faiths for Serampore degrees[xv], but the Senate resolutely did not favors such a prospect and advise students to seek admissions in secular universities and their departments in Religions and Christian Studies.[xvi] It, however, initiated a diploma course in Christian Studies for the people of all faiths and its Bachelor’s degree in that branch was initially meant for them, but none came forward for the study and it is now offered to Christian lay people.
It may be noted that Aligarh Muslim University does offer BTh, MTh and Ph. D degrees in Shia and Sunni theology in its department of theology.[xvii] Recently, some deemed universities have also included theological studies in their programmes.[xviii] We must take note that the nomenclature of theological degrees is not notified by the UGC under the provisions of Article 22(3).[xix] Serampore, as mentioned earlier, has pointed it out and had an answer from the Commission. It is also to be noted that Serampore is the only independent university that is explicitly empowered to grant degrees in theology, and other universities, under the University Act of 1904, were advised not to grant degrees in theology. There is no indication, so far, that such a policy has changed, and others, including deemed universities, are now empowered to grant degrees in theology. There is a possibility that theological degrees will be granted, as in the West, by secular universities. If so, its implications has to be taken for serious consideration as universities which grant theological degrees will have to admit students without restrictions, and they have to be awarded to people of other faiths and equal opportunities have to be given to them with regards to professional opportunities in the universities concerned.
One corollary of the Article 13, should not be over-looked. The College can commence granting degrees in any branch of knowledge other than theology, if it fulfills the requirements imposed by the State Government. Its Senate, at present, is functioning only for the faculty of Theology. Senate, in the case College opts to offer degrees other than in the Faculty of Theology, shall have to be entrusted to activate all the apparatus required for the introduction of the degree programmes, regulations, curriculum, and syllabus, and arrange for the examination-process, declare the results and recommend to the Council for the award of the suggested degree/diploma.
Enlisting Serampore College (University) as university
This is a new phenomenon in our system as many universities are being established through the process of law by the state and central governments. Some time ago, many states governments were in the business of granting Acts to establish universities; UGC and the courts had to intervene to check this trend. The number of universities and degree granting institutions are increasing in number making it difficult for UGC to control the quality of education in this country. It now has a system by which universities and educational institutions are evaluated and graded through a scale of excellence for providing incentives for quality education and innovative programmes. As this involves a lot of financial commitment, listing has become a difficult proposition in the country.
Further a new category of ‘universities’ is evolved, such as deemed universities, self,-financing universities, central universities, state universities, institutions of national importance etc., and one has to fit in one of this under a criteria. In a recent case, the Supreme Court has directed the UGC to enlist a particular university, which is duly established by an Act, but with a rider that UGC must form some guidelines or criteria to do so. Everyone is waiting for the guidance from the UGC.
In the changed scenario, Serampore has to work out a system in consultation with the UGC. The nature and character of Serampore College (University) is quite different than any other university established/recognized under an Act of the State Assembly/parliament with so much history behind it. If the same nature and character is to be assigned to other universities, and they are also authorized to award theological degrees, its implications needs to be taken seriously by the churches and theological institutions. Serampore, on its part, has approached the UGC, and is waiting for the response from it.
We can observe that though all the stages in evolution, college did not lose sight of its Christian context. Education, in initial stages, was given at the College with a view to prepare evangelists and mission workers for the ever-expanding mission-fields of the Serampore Mission. To be fair to the Serampore-Trio, we should have to keep in mind that they were providing general education to the ‘natives’ as well, and hence, had to exclude a part of their curricula which was meant for Christian students, from general education, unless otherwise it was acceptable to students of other faith. It is in the context of the people of other faith, residing and studying courses in Serampore College, that the secular context can be applied. It is one of the greatest contributions of Serampore that it made us realize that our context is pluralistic, multifarious and diversified. It is rich in religious traditions, culture, languages, and social structures. Critical engagement is the only way leading to understanding, overcoming fear of otherness and estrangement from each other. This was the spirit behind curriculum revision in the recent times, about which we will talk tomorrow.
[i] George Howells, The Story of Serampore and its College, Serampore, 1918, p. 4
[iii] Council of SeramporeCollege, The Story of Serampore and its College, Serampore IV, Ed. 2005, p. 22
[v] The Story of Serampore and Its College, op cit. p.31.
[vi] Ibid. P.25
[vii] Charter, Article 7
[viii] Statutes 13
[ix] Bengal Act IV of 1918, The Serampore college Act, 1918, Article 13
[x] Resolution VI of Senate 1928; p. 533
[xi] Cf. CAA/60/98; p. 965: Resolution XXXIII
[xii] Structures of University Education in India, UNESCO, Paris, 1952, p.3 ( document is available at http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0017/001790/179035eb.pdf)
[xiii] The document, prepared in consultation with eminent scholars and educationalists, including Chairperson, UGC, Vice-chancellors and civil servants, is available at httpo://education.nic.in/unhighedu.asp, p.17. Mistake in date may be corrected; it is 1827, not 1829.
[xiv] Proceedings, p. 70
[xv] Sen/8/28; also Sen/18/48
[xvi] Universities of Mysore, Madras, Madurai-Kamraj and Patiala have department in Christian Studies/Religions
[xvii] University Handbook (30th Edition-2004), Association of Indian Universities, AIU House, Kotla Marg, New Delhi, p.11
[xviii] See Allahabad Agricultural Institute, University Handbook, op cit. p. 29
[xix] For the purposes of this section, ‘degrees’ means any such degree as may, with the previous approval of the Central Government, be specified in this behalf by the commission by notification in the official Gazette. (UGC Act, 1956)